Glomerulonephritis is a term that refer to several kidney diseases that are caused by an immunologic injury that target the kidneys, affecting primarily the glomeruli (a main structures in the kidney that filter the blood) and their small blood vessels).


Glomerulonephritis can be primary GN (affecting the kidneys only) or secondary GN (The kidneys are affected in the context of other systemic diseases such systemic lupus erythematosus or hepatitis C). The name of each of these diseases usually reflect  the histology (how the kidney tissue  affected by the disease appears under the microscope) of the kidney in each these diseases.


Clinical manifestations:


The clinical manifestations of these disease are variable, some will not have any symptoms and the disease is discovered during testing for other reasons, some will have swelling , others will see bloody or foamy urine.


Blood and urine test abnormalities:


The blood and urine test abnormalities are also variable depending on the type and severity of the disease, and include different levels of proteinuria ( presence of abnormal amount of protein in the urine), presence of blood in the urine and increase in serum creatinine (which indicate a decrease in kidney function).




Treatment depends on the type of disease, level of kidney function and the degree of proteinuria, but include general measures such as treatment of abnormally high serum lipids and good control of blood pressure using specific classes of blood pressure medicine called angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB). In addition, drugs that suppress the immune system are usually used when the proteinuria is severe or the kidney function is worsening. Early detection, appropriate therapy and compliance with medication and follow up are critical in preserving the kidney function in these diseases.



 The following are the major types of glomerulonephritis:


1-IgA Nephropathy


2-Membranous Nephropathy


3-Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis


4-Focal and segmental Glomerulosclerosis


5-Minimal change disease





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 Glomerulonephritis (GN)