Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) Guidelines (by the National kidney Foundation, NKF) define CKD by the presence of kidney damage or decreased kidney function for three or more months.
Development of CKD can be due to numerous causes, such as diabetes, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis. Patients with CKD may not have any symptoms, especially in early stages. However, in advanced stages, patients may develop high blood pressure, swelling, anemia and high level of blood phosphate. In addition, CKD increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
The revised kidney disease classification divides the CKD stages based on the level of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, a measurement of kidney function) and level of albuminuria (albumin level in the urine):
-G1: GFR >90 ml / min /1.73 m2
-G2: GFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2
-G3a:GFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2
-G3b:GFR 30-44 ml/min/1.73 m2
-G4: GFR 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m2
-G5: GFR <15 ml/min/1.73 m2
- A1: Albumin excretion rate <30 mg/day
- A1: Albumin excretion rate 30-300 mg/day
- A1: Albumin excretion rate >300 mg/day
Treatment of CKD depends on the cause of CKD, such as controlling diabetes and blood pressure, and treatment of glomerulonephritis. It is very important for patients with CKD to follow up with their kidney specialists and comply with the prescribed medical treatment and dietary instructions. This will help slow the progression of CKD. In addition, the kidney specialist will prepare those with advanced kidney disease for dialysis or kidney transplantation.
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD)